Shou-jiang Tang, MD, FASGE & Ruonan Wu, MSE University of Mississippi Medical Center
For gastrointestinal endoscopists and otolaryngologists, esophageal introitus (EI) is the arbitrary yet overlapping boundary. Many times, the term EI is used interchangeably with the pharyngoesophageal sphincter or upper esophageal sphincter. In this review, the authors broadened the definition of EI to cover the lower part of the hypopharynx posterior to the larynx, the esophageal opening posterior to the cricoid prominence and the area between the bilateral pyriform fossae and the cervical esophagus. Although much pathology can be
observed within this region, careful and systemic examination of the EI is often not stressed enough during endoscopic training and practice. The authors demonstrate its anatomy, endoscopic findings and pathologies within EI and their management.
Upon completion of this educational activity, participants will be able to:
- Identify normal endoscopic landmarks and findings within the EI.
- Diagnose common endoscopic findings such as gastric mucosa heterotopia, web,
radiation stricture, cricopharyngeal bar, mucositis, foreign body impaction, etc.
- Identify and manage uncommon pathologies such as various types of diverticulum,pemphigus, pemphigoid, etc.
Target Audience: Practicing gastroenterologists, gastroenterology fellows and trainees, medical residents, physician assistants, and nurses.
[2014 - TRT 64:00] 1.00 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditsTM